Different functions: Different cells in different parts of our body use the blood glucose for different purposes. For example, the brain and nervyous system cells cannot store it, nor can the special muscle cells of the heart. In the liver, by contrast, nearly all the circulating blood sugar delivered to it is converted into storage as glycogen or into fat. When glucose reaches the liver, it is altered—again by the use of special enzymes – to what are known as fatty acids (chemically called friglycerides). lhese re-circulate in the and are stored up elsewhere in the body as fat. in the abdomen, below the kin. in the breasts, thighs and buttocks. Hence anyone who overeats. or takes in more carbohydrate in his/her diet than the body cells need. gets more fat. Similarly. if our body is deprived of energy from carbohydrate, or needs more than it can get in the diet, the body-fat is broken down and the cycle of glucose metabolism is reversed.
Fat becomes a fatty acid known as ketone; the liver converts the ketone back to glucose and the cell th absorbs glucose.
Illis action is not working only in diabetics but cycle of change backwards and forwards is occurring all the tirne in our body. The body cannot withstand long riods without food. Similarly, in even short periods of high requirement and reduced food intake the body will rapidly break down its stores of fat to ensure that a blood-glucose level is maintained for brain and heart-muscles function. Ketones in the bloodstream appear very rapidly in illness. If they are at an excessive level they will be excreted by the kidney, too.
Ketones in urine
Ketones in urine: Ketones appear as acetone in the urine of the woman at the time of child birth which indicates the physical effort she is making to give birth to her baby. This effort causes her body to mobilize all its energy sources. Ketones are detectable as a sweet scent on the breath of the sick child and, in particular, they are obvious in the breath of badly controlled diabetics.
In the humans body the effect of insulin is also needed in the liver to mobilize the change of glucose to ketones and fat so that when insulin is insufficient to a person’s needs, there is a shortage of energy for the body’s cells, a breakdown of the body’s fats, a loss of weight and the state of ketosis occurs where the blood is loaded with unusable sugar, ketones and fatty acids. The diabetic, who is short of insulin, cannot easily produce in this chemical cycle of metabolism a straightforvard transfer of blood glucose across to the cell.
The insulin has its single most important function in the use of carbohydrate as energy, and it also aids the body’s use of fatty acids that may be taken in as foodstuffs.
Since the body. in an ernergeney. can break down its own protein to give energ$r and so lose its rnusclc bulk as well. a defect in the insulin role will inevitably affect the whole of the body’s metabolisrn. In a healthy person there is generally no defect in the supply of insulin available from pancreas. After eating a meal, the fasting blood sugar rises to 150 mg. / 100 ml. of blood within 30 to 60 minutes. A rising is needed, and the islet cells secrete more in response to the rise to bring the blood-sugar level down again. Once it has levelled off, the islet cells ket down to rest and the insulin secretion drops.
If the blood level of sugar rises above 170 mg. / 100 ml.. the kidney cells cannot cope with their normal reabsorption of this special energy-giving substance and so they let it to ‘slip through’ into the urine. ms causes sugar to appear in the urine technically termed glycosuria as described before.