Earliest signs: In most people this is the earliest detectable sign of diabetes occurring. Sometimes. in pregnancy, sugar is discovered in the woman’s urine, as a part of the routine tests done at each antenatal visit, but again this may be due to a reduced efficiency of the kidney-a spillover effect once more, and not to be taken as a sign of diabetes. In diabetic, the insulin deficiency means that the blood sugar continues to rise, the cells are being deprived of their life sustaining fuel, the body breaks down its fats and the sugar is wasted in the urine.
Surprisingly, however. the diabetic may not be simply producing less insulin than the healthy person does; they may in fact be producing more than is normal. but even then not enough for their own needs. But evidence has shown that, if the blood-insulin levels of individuals who are going to become insulin-dependent are compared with those of normal people, the diabetics do have higher level.
What happens to this excess, therefore. when clearly. despite the increased output of insulin, they do not have enough, or they would not be diabetic? The suggestion is that diabetics may have something in their bloodstream that is an antagonist to insulin, or a neutralizer. If they have then the explanation as to why they produce more and perhaps ultimately fail to keep up with a rising need and so exhaust their pancreas and become diabetic is logical. However, so far attempts to accurately define what the ‘insulin neutralizer’ is have not been completely successful.
It is clear that a person with the signs of diabetes needs extra insulin. or else special dietary control to prevent the overload of their metabolism that sparked it all off. The alternative of special drugs that can be taken by mouth — which lower the blood sugar and stimulate an ageing or failing pancreas to greater effort is one for the older person.
Insulin As Injuction:
Insulin as injuction: Insulin is a thing that unfortunately cannot be given as a tablet or medicine by mouth. It is a protein substance, biochemically, and is therefore broken down and its effects neutralized by the stomach’s digestive juices, and thus must be given only by injection.
There are many different types of insulin of different duration of effect, from the short-acting to the long and all are derived from animal sources.
Though the man has found the ways to keep in control this disease but it plays different roles in different age-group. It progresses more rapidly in young persons and children. The process is very slow or more insidious in adult or more mature persons.
In young persons, diabetes millitus symptoms manifest themselves very quickly. Older persons may become diabetic for a long time without the manifestation of any sign or symptom until a routine check up is done. One of the foremost signs of diabetes is a tendency to urinate frequently. Apart from the number of times during the day, the patient needs to get up frequently at night to pass urine.
In the beginning, he may feel it to be just a minor abnormality, but when it becomes associated with excessive thirst, the patient becomes conscious of his ailment. When the blood sugar level increases as a reaction to this, thirst increases and intake of more water activates the production of a larger quantity of urine.
Weak despite more food:
Weak despite more food: Even though there is more sugar in the body, the tissues starve because of lack of nourishment in the individual. As a reaction to this, the appetite increases and he tries to have more and more food. But in spite of eating larger quantities of food, he continues to remain exhausted and weak. There is a marked loss of weight and strength. Older persons complain of tiredness and unusual fatigue of rapid physical exhaustion.
The patient suffers from different types of pains in different parts of the body when he exerts himself a little. Sometimes his eyesight is affected, the skin becomes dry and he looks a little shrunken. The patient gradually loses weight because of malnourishment. He becomes ice-tempered, irritable and worried because the brain cells and the central nervous system are being deprived of their essential nutrients.
If he remains untreated, the fat accumulated in the body gets broken down into ketones and these ketones circulate in the blood stream. When these ketones are at an excessive level in the blood stream, they come out through the kidneys also. They appear as acetone in the urine which gives a peculiar smell to it. This smell can be felt in the breath of the patients.
Permissible sugar in blood in mg. / 100 ml.
Fasting Normal On borderline Too much Fasting less than 100 110-120 above 120 P.P. less than 120 130-179 above 180