Primary Diabetes : Diabetes has been classified variously on the basis of the varying ways it affects the human body. The disease is said to be caused by the disorders in the metabolic process if insufficient insulin is produced by pancreas which leads to a rise in sugar level in the blood. The disease is syndrome — a collection of diseases and factors which lead to hyperglycaemia — excess of glucose in blood.
Types: World Health Organisation, an organ of UNO, had pointed out in its report released in 1980. that diabetes mellitus can be classified as primary and secondary for clinical convenience.
(a) Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
(b) Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
Under the second category fall the diseases of pancreas, harmonaletiolog, insulin abnormalities, genetic syndromes, drug-addicted complications, impaired/ glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational Diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Besides, there are some cases which fall under risk factors. They are subject to normal glucose tolerance but have an increased risk of developing the disease.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): some patients, generally below 50 years of age. having less than normal or normal weight, insulin produc_ tion is very insufficient or nil. Such cases require in. sulin injections or external supplementation of insu. line All of a sudden the patient starts feeling too much hungry, is subject to too much urination. has painful limbs, starts losing weight, has itching over the body and his vision becomes blurred. Often children and adolescent are prey to this malady. But at times no such symptoms are apparent and the patient just slips into coma or dies. That is a very dangerous situation and needs immediate insulin or oral anti-diabetic drug. The patient may develop ketoacidosis which may prove fatal.
It is advisible for such patients to have rich-calorie food to maintain weight and also have insulin injections to maintain the required sugar level in blood.
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM): Patients suffering from this type have not to depend on insulin for prevention of diabetes. Generally middle-aged or those beyond 40 years are a prey to this type, but exceptions are there and it may occur in the younger age too. The disease develops gradually and may be detected on a routine medical check up. Such patients survive for long with the use oforal medication, dietary control, exercise, etc.
The disease can be controlled in more than 50 per cent cases by only dietary control and by 20 per cent by taking oral hypoglycaemic drugs. But the patient should take medicine regularly. Again, an overdose of medicine is taboo as that may cause side-effects. Periodical check up is equally necessary. The patient cannot afford to delay in taking the medicine or stopping it. It is very risky.
The treatment and diet in such cases varies from one patient to another depending upon the severity Of CLASSIFICATION 45 the dlscasc and weight of the body. It is of utmost importancc to reduce weight. control intake of calories and having a balanced diet which must be nourishing.
Malnutrition-related diabetes Mellitus (MRDM): W} 10 study has shown that in hot, underdeveloped countries people suffering from diabetes present a history of nutriationaJ deficiency and other symptoms. They arc also placed under IDDM and NIDDM. Such cascs are prevalent among the poor people and are generally found in India, Bangladesh, Fiji, Indonesia, Jarnalca. Kcnya, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and other warm countries.