Sugar in blood
Sugar in blood: But one should not jump to the conclusion that if we are having sugar in urine, it is the case of diabetes. It is only when tests confirm the presence of sugar in blood that we can infer that the patient is diabetic.
The presence of sugar in urine, however, should make one sit and ponder. It is definitely a warning that something is wrong somewhere and needs clinical test. But one should not be satisfied with just one test. At times results show discrepancy. Therefore a few more tests should be gone through. If sugar is found each time, then it is a confirmed case of diabetes.
In most cases, before coma and death, ketoacidosis produces a diabetic crisis during which effective treatment is possible. The crisis builds up over a day or two. The patient becomes drowsy and breathes deeper and faster. At the same time, thirst increases. Pulse is weak and rapid, the tongue is dry and the breath has the typically sweetish smell of acetone. The gut is often tender and painful.
If these symptoms are found, the patient should rushed to the hospital. It is suggested that the cause of the crisis. for example. infccUon. heart attack or the patient’s self-neglect. should be investigated before treatment is started so that it can corrected, but treatment must not be delayed “unduly”. Even such nursing procedures as bathing the patient before he or she is put to bed should be adandoned. In short. after a blocked air passage and a severed artery. diabetic ketoacidosis presents perhaps the most urgent crisis in medicine.
Two types: Out of the two types. mellitus and insipidus, when we talk of diabetes, we normally mean the former, that is, diabetes mellitus because it is the obstinate and an othenvise incurable disease. Every moment, whether we are doing something or we are at rest. whether awake or asleep, are woried and anxious or in a state of mental tranquillity, the tissues in our body are undergoing changes and cells are gettina destroyed. To make up for this loss we have to prom.”de our body with food, drink, fresh air and sunlight.
Food which we take can be divided into four categories. (l) carbohydrates, (2) fat. (3) proteins and (4) vitamins and minerals. Water, of course. is very essential for the body.
Above all these, it is carbohydrates which give us enerß’. If the process of using up this substance is disturbed or prevented anywhere in our body then diabetes is caused. As a result of this carbohydrates are turned into sugar in the digestive system which gets accumulated in the blood and then is passed out through urine.
Normally these carbohydrates are used up as energy and the surplus energy is stored in our as fat, but in case of a diabetic it is excreted thiÄ)ugh the urine.
A chemical substance in the body which plays an important role in converting blood sugar into energy is known as insulin. This insulin is produced by a gland called pancreas which is located in the upper part of the abdomen just below the stomach. It is SUPpIied with blood vessels and a duct comes out of this gland which opens into the first part of the intestines known as the duodenum.
Inside the pancreas, there are spongr glands known as islets of Langerhans. It is these glands that secrete this hormone known as insulin.
Insulin secretion: This hormone enters the blood through capillaries and circulates throughout the body. It helps in the transformation of blood glucose into energy.
For a healthy person, there is normally no difficulty in the supply of insulin from the pancreas. After having food, blood sugar rises to 150 mg. per 100 ml. of blood within about half an hour. This rising blood sugar sends a signal to the pancreas about the need for more insulin. Thus in response to this signal, the pancreas secretes more insulin and the blood sugar level goes down because sugar is consumed by insuline If this signal does not produce the required response, then there will be less insulin in the blood. Hence more sugar remains unused in the blood thus causing diabetes mellitus.
Normally, a certain amount of sugar is excreted through the kidney cells, but being absorbs on the way it is not passed through the urine. But if the blood sugar level rises above 180 mg. per 100 ml. of blood, then the kidney cells cannot reabsorb the extra sugar which is then excreted. Therefore the sugar appears in the urine. This condition is called glycosuriæ This can happen even in a normal healthy person. If a person takes a lot of sugar or sweet food, then too the level of blood sugar increases and sugar is passed through the urine. This is a temporary phenomenon due to overtaking of sweets and the condition should not be cone fused with diabetes. As the blood sugar level comes down. the urine becomes sugar-free.